Play title Keisei Asama-ga-Dake  In Japanese
Common title Asama-ga-Dake  In Japanese
Authors "It may have been written by Chikamatsu Monzaemon, the actor Nakamura Shichisabur˘ I, or Nakamura Denshichi." (Samuel Leiter in "New Kabuki Encyclopedia")

The ni-no-kawari drama "Keisei Asama-ga-Dake" was premiered in the 1st lunar month in Ky˘to at Hayagumo Ch˘dayű's theater. It was produced by Yamashita Hanzaemon I [casting]. This long run play was about the apparition of a courtesan's ghost to her unfaithful lover and became both a milestone in Kabuki history and a classic theme.

In modern times, after WWII, it was revived only once by Osanai Kaoru (only the 3rd scene of the 1st act), in March 1954 at the Kabukiza, for the first edition from the 27th to the 28th of March of the Tsubomikai, a study group led by Nakamura Utaemon VI [more details].


"Keisei Asama-ga-Dake" was in 3 acts (7 scenes).

Key words Asama Daimy˘jin
Asama Jinja
Enma Dai˘
Fugen Bosatsu
Taiko Mochi

Act I, scene 1: Announcement of the Kaich˘

The head priest of the Asama Shrine appears with two novices and several other monks. He explains to the crowd the origin of the shrine and announces that, since women are not allowed to visit this mountain shrine, an exhibit of its chief object of worship, a statue of Fugen Bosatsu, will be held in the Higashiyama district on the outskirts of Ky˘to beginning on the fourteenth day of the second month. Also displayed will be the bodhisattva's attendant deities, Enma˘ and Go˘. Those who purchase the amulets of these two deities, he continues, will be protected from evil and calamities, while those who make the pilgrimage to the exhibit will be able to meet their dead loved ones. Among the crowd listening to the priest's announcement are Kumonjiya Och˘, the mistress of a brothel, as well as her brother, Kumonjiya Kuheiji, and others from the licensed quarter. They are on their way to the magistrate's office to make an appeal. Believing that an amulet may help them in their suit, Och˘ obtains one from the priest. The two parties then go their separate ways.

Act I, scene 2: The Residence of Lord Suwa

The senior retainer of the Suwa family, Hanaoka Wadaemon, is on his way to the family residence with a number of samurai when he is stopped by Och˘ and her party. Their suit has not been taken up by the magistrate, and so now they appeal to Wadaemon. They explain that Tonegor˘, the young lord of Suwa, after having visited the keisei Miura some twenty times, suddenly became angry and tied her up, threatening severe punishment for anyone who dares release her. Since this is causing great hardship for the brothel, they ask Wadaemon to intercede. He agrees to do so and sends his men into the house to inquire about the lord.

Suwa Tonegor˘ comes storming out and accuses Wadaemon of showing disrespect by taking up the brothel's case against him. Tonegor˘'s mother also appears. She reminds her son that it is Otowa-no-Mae (the former lord's daughter by his first wife) and not he who is the heir to the household, and that Wadaemon is not being disrespectful. She adds that he has been very short-tempered lately. Tonegor˘ thus explains why he became so angry. After visiting Miura some twenty times, he asked her to come and live with him at his residence, and she agreed. When the time came to bring her, however, she refused, saying there was another man with whom she was very close. He therefore tied her up and swears he will keep her that way for fifty or even seventy years. Wadaemon replies that he should not take this as an insult, since keisei are known to refuse even daimy˘ and members of good families. He also suggests that Miura may already be regretting her refusal. Tonegor˘ thus announces that he will forgive her if she now agrees to come. Wadaemon proposes buying her out, and Tonegor˘'s mother gives her consent to this solution. The people from the brothel, however, knowing what a strong-minded woman Miura is, insist that she be asked directly.

Fortunately, she has been brought in a palanquin and is waiting at the gate. They untie her bonds and Miura makes her entrance in full keisei finery. Tonegor˘'s mother is impressed, but points out that Miura broke her promise to her son, something a samurai's daughter would never do. "As they say, there is no sincerity in a keisei," she adds. Miura replies that, on the contrary, there is no one more sincere than a keisei, though she does not expect Tonegor˘'s mother to understand what she means. Wadaemon then volunteers to make the proposal to Miura, but when he takes a close look at her he realizes that she is the very same keisei with whom he himself had been intimate. Miura explains (presumably to Wadaemon alone) that she has been thinking only of him. When he stopped seeing her, she neglected her duties and was eventually sold to another licensed quarter closer to the Suwa residence. She was thus hoping to be able to meet Wadaemon again, but she heard not a word from him. Tonegor˘ then asks about this other man she is apparently deeply committed to. Wadaemon, apparently not aware that she means him, also wants to know. Miura does not answer immediately but instead speaks of the nature of her relations with her customers and the false truths and truthful falsehoods of the keisei. Finally, however, it is revealed to all that Wadaemon is her former lover and that it was when she learned that Tonegor˘ was his master that she refused to come to the Suwa residence. Tonegor˘ becomes enraged, and his mother orders her samurai to strip Wadaemon of his swords and drive him into exile, together with the keisei. Wadaemon, however, will not stand for this and suggests that if anyone should be sent into exile it is Tonegor˘. He reminds them that Tonegor˘'s mother was a mere servant girl whom the former Lord Suwa took up as his mistress after the death of his wife, and that Tonegor˘ himself is a bastard she brought along with her. He suggests that they step down and allow Otowa-no-Mae and her fiancÚ to rule the house. Insulted, Tonegor˘'s mother now orders Wadaemon to commit suicide (seppuku). Wadaemon replies that he had heard something about a plot to get rid of both himself and Otowa-no-Mae so that the bastard can be installed as the heir to the Suwa household. Now that Tonegor˘'s mother has ordered him to commit suicide on flimsy charges, he realizes that the rumours were true. He draws his sword and fighting ensues. Eventually Wadaemon succeeds in driving Tonegor˘, his mother and their samurai back into the house.

Meanwhile, the people from the licensed quarter have fled, leaving Wadaemon and Miura alone. Miura suggests that they go off somewhere together, adding that being ordered into exile is as good as being ransomed for free. Fearing for Otowa-no-Mae's safety, Wadaemon is at first hesitant to leave. Concluding, however, that since she is officially recognized as the legitimate heir to the house no one will dare harm her, he finally agrees. They leave together.

Act I, scene 3: The Road to Higashiyama in Ky˘to

A young girl of twelve or thirteen appears carrying a bundle on her back. The palanquin bearer Shichibŕ also appears and suggests she takes a palanquin, adding it will only take seven minutes to reach the site of the Asama kaich˘. The girl agrees and asks him to call his partner. Shichibŕ's partner turns out to be none other than the exiled Wadaemon, now going by the name of Sakubŕ. A humorous scene ensues in which the two bearers discuss how to compensate for their unequal heights. There is also some confusion about where they are going (Sakubŕ believing they are going to the original Asama Shrine some 120 leagues away!). While they are talking they discover that the young girl is a kamuro (apprentice keisei) from the Chimori licensed quarter in Sakai and that she has been sent by her tayű (the highest rank of keisei) to the Asama kaich˘ to pray that she can meet again the man she loves.

They just start on their way when the wives of the two palanquin bearers (i. e. Miura and Shichibŕ's wife Onatsu) appear with some young monks. One of the monks explains that they are looking for someone to work at the site of the kaich˘. Both men volunteer, and when the monks decide on Sakubŕ, Shichibŕ involves them in a witty conversation in which he eventually disqualifies himself by showing that, contrary to his claim, he is too short-tempered for the job. Sakubŕ and his wife (Wadaemon and Miura) thus leave with the monks. Shichibŕ now without his partner, asks his wife to look after the palanquin while he carries the girl to the kaich˘ on his back.

On the way Shichibŕ stops for a rest and asks the girl if she would like to learn the ABCs of love. She refuses and runs into a narrow street, where she hears a woman singing a song. The girl is captivated by the song and sings one of her own in response. Hearing the girl's singing, the woman sends out one of her servants to invite the girl in. The woman, it turns out, is Otowa-no-Mae, heiress of the Suwa family. She says she would like to take the girl in as a servant, but the girl replies that that is impossible since she is already a kamuro in the service of a tayű. Otowa-no-Mae then says she would like to see how people behave in the licensed quarters. Shichibŕ volunteers to act the part of the keisei buyer, but the kamuro protests that he is not dressed well enough for the part. She therefore suggests that he put on the kimono she is carrying in her bundle. Shichibŕ, however, is surprised to see that the kimono bears his crest. He realizes that the tayű the girl serves is ďshű, the prostitute to whom he gave the kimono as a memento. The girl then replies that he must be Ozasa Tomoenoj˘, the man ďshű longs to see again. It is for just this reason that she has been sent to offer the kimono to the kaich˘. Hearing this, Lady Otowa announces her own identity, saying that she is Tomoenoj˘'s betrothed. She adds that she has taken a house near the kaich˘ in order to pray for information concerning her missing fiancÚ. Asked about his present state, Tomoenoj˘ answers that because of his involvement with ďshű he has been disinherited by his family and fallen into the lowly station of a palanquin bearer. He assumes that Otowa-no-Mae is no longer interested in him, but she insists she will have him just as he is. She concludes his turning up is a miracle wrought by the grace of the Asama bodhisattva. Tomoenoj˘ is overjoyed and offers a prayer of thanksgiving.

Just then, however, the kamuro faints. All are alarmed and try to revive her. As she regains consciousness she asks that the amulet pouch around her neck be removed, as it is burning her. Tomoenoj˘ removes it and, after confirming that it is hot, throws it away. It starts to smoulder. When the smoke has subsided, Tomoenoj˘ picks it up and finds the pouch is full of pledges of love. There is also a vow written to the god of Asama Mountain. In it ďshű declares that she has been absolutely true to her lover, even cutting off her finger and writing countless kish˘mon to show her sincerity. Her lover, however, having lost his stipend and been disinherited, has turned against her, declaring his own kish˘mon lies. She has now resolved to gather the kish˘mon she has received from him and dedicate them to the god of Asama so that she may be saved from future sins. Tomoenoj˘ is frightened by this proof of ďshű's excessive attachment to him. Since he is to be married to Otowa-no-Mae, he decides to burn the kish˘mon ďshű has sent him and which he still-carries. He throws them into the hibachi and they start to burn. Then out of the smoke appears ďshű's spirit. While the women cower in fright, Tomoenoj˘ places his hand on his sword and demands to know the reason for her appearance. She replies that she has longed to meet him and talk to him again. He tries to embrace her but she disappears only to reappear singing a song of forsaken love. Otowa-no-Mae now understands the depth of ďshű's passion for Tomoenoj˘ and suggests he ransom her. They have one of the servants accompany the kamuro back to her brothel, and then Tomoenoj˘ and Otowa withdraw to meet the widowed Lady Suwa.

Act I, scene 4: Otowa-no-Mae's Lodgings

Suwa Tonegor˘, carrying a large, ornamental umbrella, appears at the same inn with a number of his samurai, who are carrying buckets. They are preparing to perform the ceremony of "bathing the bridegroom." Lady Suwa enters and, after inquiring what all the fuss is about, suggests that such a ceremony can wait until the wedding couple (Tomoenoj˘ and Otowa-no-Mae) have returned to the family residence. Tomoenoj˘ and Otowa-no-Mae then also appear. Tomoenoj˘, now in formal dress, thanks Tonegor˘ for making the preparations but also says that such a ritual can wait.

Just then a messenger arrives with news that Tomoenoj˘'s cousin Ozasa Danshir˘ has murdered his master, Lord Emon, and has been captured. The prisoner is presented before Tomoenoj˘ to make his confession. The messenger declares that such a crime inculpates all members of the criminal's family, and thus Tomoenoj˘ must commit seppuku. Convinced that this is retribution for his own past behaviour, Tomoenoj˘ states he is ready to submit to the law. Otowa-no-Mae, however, asks what will become of her if her husband kills himself. Lady Suwa replies that the only honourable thing to do would be to follow her husband's example and kill herself as well. Otowa-no-Mae prepares to do just that, but is stopped by Tomoenoj˘. If this is the custom, he asks Lady Suwa, why did she not kill herself when her own husband died? Lady Suwa attempts to make excuses, but Tomoenoj˘ becomes suspicious. With him and Otowa-no-Mae out of the way, there will be nothing stopping Tonegor˘ from being declared the legitimate heir of the Suwa family. Eventually the cousin admits that there has been no crime and that he was promised a reward by Tonegor˘ if he made a sham confession. Tomoenoj˘ kills his cousin with a spear and then, after driving off Tonegor˘ and his samurai, he and Otowa-no-Mae make their escape.

Act II, scene 1: Wadaemon's House in Ky˘to, several years later

Hanaoka Wadaemon and his wife Miura are living in humble circumstances with their thirteen-year-old daughter, Osan. As the scene opens, Osan is being taught how to read by their neighbour, a r˘nin named Nikaid˘ Hy˘suke. Wadaemon returns with their servant boy, a fool called Yotar˘. In the course of some humorous bantering between Yotar˘ and Wadaemon and his wife, Yotar˘ accidentally kicks Wadaemon's sword case. Picking it up, Miura discovers that it contains only a wooden sword. Pressed to explain, Wadaemon relates how he sold the sword to help out his master, Ozasa Tomoenoj˘. It seems that Tomoenoj˘ and Otowa-no-Mae, due to continued troubles at home, have been forced to leave their domain and have taken temporary accommodation in Ky˘to. Tomoenoj˘, however, has gone back to his old ways and started visiting the licensed quarter again. Having piled up a debt of 8,000 monme, he became desperate for money. Otowa-no-Mae has sold her possessions, but they still require 2,800 monme. If they cannot raise the money by the next day, Tomoenoj˘ will be hauled before the licensed quarter authorities to face punishment. Wadaemon has thus sold his sword to acquire the necessary sum. Hy˘suke lauds him for his devotion to his lord, and Miura, too, approves of his actions. Wadaemon then prepares to take the money to Tomoenoj˘, but Miura suggests that it would be better to have him come to their house so that she can encourage him not to make the same mistake again before handing over the money. Wadaemon agrees with this plan. He puts the money away in a cupboard and then leaves to fetch Tomoenoj˘, telling Yotar˘ to look after the house while he is away. Hy˘suke leaves at the same time.

It is now getting dark and Osan and Yotar˘ go to bed. Thinking that she should have some sake to offer Tomoenoj˘ when he comes, Miura goes out to buy some. While she is away, however, Hy˘suke sneaks back into the house. He takes the money out of the cupboard, but drops some of the coins as he is stuffing them into a bag. Osan awakes and asks why he is stealing her father's money. Hy˘suke replies that her father sent him to get it, but Osan still insists he is stealing. Finally he throws the money on the floor and tells her to put it away. As she is picking it up, Hy˘suke draws his sword, grabs her and, after a brief struggle, stabs her. Meanwhile, Yotar˘ has awoken and witnesses the murder. He hides. After picking up the money Hy˘suke searches for him, but soon gives up and leaves.

Immediately thereafter Miura comes back with the sake and Yotar˘ tells her what has happened. She is about to rush out after Hy˘suke when Osan calls to her. Before dying, Osan asks her mother to seek revenge. While Mura and Yotar˘ are lamenting Osan's death, Tomoenoj˘ turns up at the gate pursued by his creditors in the licensed quarter. He has apparently missed Wadaemon on his way to the house. The creditors threaten him with legal proceedings if he does not pay. Tomoenoj˘ replies that he is a samurai and they are insulting him. He makes to draw his sword but the men grab him and rough him up. Just then Wadaemon returns and breaks up the struggle. The situation is explained to him and he assures Tomoenoj˘'s creditors that they will get their money. They all go into the house. Without telling him about Osan's murder, Miura informs her husband that the money has been stolen. Tomoenoj˘'s creditors then say they have no choice but to take Tomoenoj˘ with them. At this point Miura volunteers to go to the licensed quarter instead and work to pay off Tomoenoj˘'s debts. Wadaemon will at first have nothing to do with this proposal but in the end is persuaded by his wife's argument that this is just a temporary measure and that she will return as soon as the debt is paid off. He thus agrees, but since the creditors have not brought their seal, he will have to go to the licensed quarter with them and Miura to complete the agreement. As he is about to leave Tomoenoj˘ speaks up, suggesting that Wadaemon leave him to his fate. Wadaemon, however, will hear nothing of it, declaring that he will make a samurai out of Tomoenoj˘ yet. Before leaving, Miura secretly mourns one last time for Osan.

Left alone with Yotar˘, Tomoenoj˘ learns of Osan's murder. Asked who killed her, Yotar˘ replies that it was Hy˘suke. Finally he does learn from Yotar˘ the details of the incident, but Tomoenoj˘ sees Yotar˘'s point: Osan's murder and Miura's being sold to a brothel both happened on his account. Ashamed of himself he tries to commit seppuku, but is stopped by Yotar˘, who urges him to avenge Osan's death by killing Hy˘suke instead. Tomoenoj˘ resolves to do just that. The two place a light in the house's Buddhist altar and then carry Osan's body off to a temple.

Act II, scene 2: The Chimori Licensed Quarter of Sakai, some three months later

To the Chimori licensed quarter comes a rich merchant, Hokkokuya Matasabur˘. With him is Kiky˘ya Ch˘shir˘, son of another merchant. The two are led into a house by the taiko mochi Kichibŕ, where they are received by the owner, Izutsuya Izaemon. Matasabur˘ explains to Izaemon that Ch˘shir˘'s father has asked him to show the young man the ways of the licensed quarter. Money, it seems, is no object. Izaemon is delighted. He asks them which keisei they would like to call for the young man. Matasabur˘ asks for ďshű, but Izaemon replies that ďshű is ill and is resting. He then suggests that they invite the new keisei, Miura, and Matasabur˘ agrees.

As they are leaving for the inner room, a door on the second floor is slid open and ďshű is seen leaning on one of the kamuro, singing a melancholy song. Ch˘shir˘ is impressed and asks who it is. Kichibŕ tells him and also suggests to ďshű that her illness is feigned. She replies that that is indeed the case, adding that what she needs is distraction more than anything else. Kichibŕ therefore says that he has brought along an interesting customer and asks if she can be "borrowed" for a while later. ďshű agrees. The door then closes and the men go inside.

Meanwhile, outside in the street Tomoenoj˘ appears with his samurai swords and wearing a wicker hat to conceal his face. Two keisei with their kamuro come along and one of the keisei peeks under the hat and recognizes him. She is Yaegiri, formally a kamuro of ďshű's. After the other keisei has gone on ahead, Yaegiri tells Tomoenoj˘ that ďshű has become sick with worry over him. She suggests they meet, but Tomoenoj˘ replies that he has not come to meet ďshű. He runs away but bumps into another keisei. This time it is Miura. The two are glad to see each other and Tomoenoj˘ tells her that it is she he came to see. Overhearing this conversation, Yaegiri thinks that Tomoenoj˘ has forsaken ďshű for Miura and runs to tell ďshű so. Tomoenoj˘ tells Miura how Wadaemon, Yotar˘ and himself spend their evenings mourning for Osan. Since today is the hundredth day since Osan's death he has been to visit her grave. After discussing Osan's posthumous Buddhist name, Miura informs Tomoenoj˘ that she has met ďshű and finds her to be a fine woman. She adds that ďshű thinks of Tomoenoj˘ constantly and has become ill. She suggests that Tomoenoj˘ pay her a visit. Tomoenoj˘ at first refuses, saying that Wadaemon would not approve, but Miura argues that it would be unchivalrous of him not to visit her and she will not let him go until he has done so. Taking him by the hand she leads him into the brothel.

Having heard from Yaegiri that Tomoenoj˘ is meeting Miura, ďshű is furious and comes storming down the stairs. The other keisei and the brothel owner's wife Otsuna try to restrain her, but she demands to be let go. Finally she cries out in pain and collapses. They take her into a room and put her in bed. Tomoenoj˘ enters and finds ďshű resting alone. He finds the sight of the worn-out woman pitiable. Just then ďshű, thinking Tomoenoj˘ is her kamuro, asks for a drink of medicine. Tomoenoj˘ looks around and sees a kettle warming on the hibachi. He pours some of the medicine into a cup and brings it to her. Opening her eyes and seeing Tomoenoj˘, ďshű throws the cup, smashing it into pieces. She then pulls the covers over her head. Since ďshű refuses to talk to him, Tomoenoj˘ decides to play a game of go by himself. He takes off his outer kimono, which is printed in a goban pattern, and spreading it over his knees plays go. While playing he carries on a monologue about his relationship with ďshű, comparing it to the moves of the game. Finally, deciding he has lost the game, he gets up to leave. ďshű, however, jumps up and stops him. She bites his leg and accuses him of giving her up for Miura. Tomoenoj˘ therefore explains who Miura is, stressing that they are both indebted to her since she is working to pay of the debts he accumulated while visiting ďshű. ďshű now understands and the lovers make up. Miura then comes in and ďshű apologizes for her behaviour. Then news comes that the doctor has arrived, and ďshű goes off to another room to see him.

Left alone with Tomoenoj˘, Miura explains that she has a problem. The young customer she has been entertaining (Ch˘shir˘) has become infatuated with her and wants to buy her out. This is out of the question, and besides would reflect badly on both Wadaemon and Tomoenoj˘'s honour. She asks Tomoenoj˘ to think of some plan to get out of it. Tomoenoj˘ thinks for a while, but then begins to praise Miura's good looks and accomplishments, adding that he can well understand why a man would like to have such a woman as his mistress. Miura tells him to stop talking nonsense and get on with devising some plan. Tomoenoj˘, however, goes on to confess that he has been in love with her since the first time he saw her, but that Wadaemon's presence prevented him from revealing his feelings. Now that they are alone in the brothel, will she not satisfy his passion just this once? Miura feels that he may be testing her, so she asks to see proof of his devotion. Tomoenoj˘ therefore cuts off his finger and throws it to her, saying "here's your proof." Miura is now furious with him. She draws one of his swords and, proclaiming her disgust at the man for whom she and her husband have sacrificed so much, attempts to kill him. Tomoenoj˘ flees and Miura runs after him, brandishing the sword. The people in the brothel shout, "It's a double love-suicide!" and "Murder!"

Outside in the street Tomoenoj˘ runs into Wadaemon, who demands to know what is going on. Miura runs up and explains everything, showing her husband the finger Tomoenoj˘ has cut off as proof of his love. Wadaemon, now also thoroughly disgusted, declares Tomoenoj˘ to be a wretched example of a samurai. He should kill himself, he adds, and if he does not, he himself will do the job. Then, however, deciding that it would be a shame to soil his sword with the blood of such a scoundrel, he takes off his z˘ri straw sandal and beats Tomoenoj˘ with it. Tomoenoj˘ says nothing and only hangs his head. Meanwhile ďshű has also arrived and, seeing Tomoenoj˘ disgraced, declares that if he will not defend himself or commit suicide she will kill herself instead. Tomoenoj˘ stops her and then explains that his confession of love for Miura was only a ruse to try and dissuade Ch˘shir˘ from buying her out. He thought that if the young man learned Miura was deeply involved with another man he would give up his plan. Asked why he had to go as far as cutting off his finger, he produces an oath he has written to the Buddha. It states that, to atone for his sins and the hardships he has caused Wadaemon, he has resolved to leave the world for the life of a priest. Tomoenoj˘ adds that, since he intended to cut off his finger and present it to Asama Shrine as proof of his resolve, he did not hesitate to make this a part of his ruse. He then removes his kimono to reveal a priest's robes underneath. Wadaemon tries to dissuade him from becoming a priest, arguing that if he does so Osan's murder and Miura's sacrifice will have been in vain. He says it would be better to make a samurai out of him. Tomoenoj˘ counters, however, with the argument that if he is to be a samurai he will have to kill himself for having suffered the humiliation of being beaten with a z˘ri. Wadaemon then says that if that is the case, he will commit suicide as well. Eventually Tomoenoj˘ gives in and declares he will do as Wadaemon wishes.

At this point Yotar˘ runs up to say that Osan's murderer, Nikaid˘ Hy˘suke, is on his way to the licensed quarter. Wadaemon waits for him and attacks when he arrives. Hy˘suke turns out to be a formidable opponent, and Wadaemon is wounded, but Tomoenoj˘ comes to his rescue and eventually Hy˘suke is defeated. All, including Yotar˘ and Miura, then share in finishing off the dying murderer. They then make apologies to the people of the licensed quarter and, promising that they will make amends as soon as Tomoenoj˘ is established in the world, they leave, taking Miura with them.

Act III, scene 1: The Site of the Asama Kaich˘

Miura, ďshű and Otowa-no-Mae no Mae arrive at the site of the kaich˘, followed by Yotar˘. The head priest appears and Miura explains that she has come to have a memorial service held for her dead daughter. When told the girl's name and age, the priest remarks that a girl of that age and calling herself Osan appeared at the shrine several days after the opening of the kaich˘. She is called out and Miura is astonished to see that it is indeed her own daughter. Osan explains that on the night of the murder she was carried away to the shrine by the Buddha who rides on the elephant's back (meaning Fugen Bosatsu). All express their gratitude to the merciful bodhisattva.

Just then, however, Suwa Tonegor˘ arrives with his samurai and demands that they hand over Otowa-no-Mae. The priest refuses, and when Tonegor˘ attempts to strike him, the priest knocks the sword out of his hand with a pole. Yotar˘ then ties Tonegor˘ to the pole and takes him away. The ceremonial dance of the twenty-five bodhisattvas is then held. Afterwards, Tonegor˘ is taken home to meet his punishment, while Tomoenoj˘ and Otowa-no-Mae happily govern the province.

Summary originally written by William James Lee in Genroku Kabuki : Cultural Production and Ideology in Early Modern Japan and slightly edited by Sh˘riya Aragor˘

The keisei ďshű (Iwai Sagenta I) apppearing in front of Ozasa Tomoenoj˘ (Nakamura Shichisabur˘ I) in the 3rd scene of the 1st act of the drama "Keisei Asama-ga-Dake", which was staged in the 1st lunar month in Ky˘to at Hayagumo Ch˘dayű's theater

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