KIN NO ZAI SARUSHIMA DAIRI
   
Play titles Kin no Zai Sarushima Dairi  In Japanese
The Gold Shrine Offerings of Sarushima [1]
D˘j˘ji Koi ha Kusemono  In Japanese
Author Tsuruya Nanboku IV
History

Tsuruya Nanboku IV's drama "Kin no Zai Sarushima Dairi" was staged for the first time in the 1st lunar month of 1829 at the Nakamuraza [more details]. The premiere was the 19th day of the 11th lunar month of 1829 [2]. This was Tsuruya Nanboku IV's last drama as the playwright died the 27th day of the 11th lunar month of 1829 [3]. The last act of "Kin no Zai Sarushima Dairi" was a spectacular d˘j˘jimono using Tokiwazu, Tomimoto and Nagauta musical ensembles. It was entitled "D˘j˘ji Koi ha Kusemono".

In modern times, "Kin no Zai Sarushima Dairi" was revived by Ichikawa Ennosuke III in January 1964 at the Nissay Theatre [casting]. The final act was entitled "Futa Omote D˘j˘ji" and it used Nagauta and Tokiwazu ensembles.

Structure

The current version of "Kin no Zai Sarushima Dairi" is made up of 4 acts (8 or 9 scenes). A shorter version exists, which is made up of Act II (from scene 1 to scene 3) and Act IV scene 1.

Key words Ama
D˘j˘ji
D˘j˘jimono
Ennosuke Jűhachiban
Ennosuke Shijűhassen
Fujiwara Hidesato
Fujiwara Tadabumi
Fukkatsu T˘shi Ky˘gen Jűhachiban
Futa-omotemono
Hashihime Jinja
Iyo
Jidaimono
Kannon
Keren
Ky˘genshi
Miidera
Minamoto Mitsunaka
Minamoto Yorimitsu
Nagauta
ďmi
Oshimodoshi
Sake
Settsu
Shakuj˘
Shim˘sa
Shiraby˘shi
Shittogoto
Tada Mitsunaka
Taira Masakado
Takiyasha
Tawara T˘ta Hidesato
Tokiwazu
Uroko Yoten
Summary

Act I, scene 1: Deep in the Mountains of Settsu

An attempted coup d'Útat by Taira no Masakado and Fujiwara no Sumitomo [4] has just been quelled by imperial loyalist forces led by Tada no Mitsunaka, Taira no Sadamori, and Tawara no T˘ta Hidesato. It is said that the leaders of the rebellion have been killed, or so it was supposed, and the loyalist army is now rounding up the defeated generals' families and followers.

Sumitomo, although presumed dead, actually managed to flee. Disguised as a pilgrim, he has been offering prayers at a secret shrine deep in the mountains of the province of Settsu. Using black magic, he plans to bring Masakado back to life. Discovered by two loyalist warriors, he killed them. Then, he takes out from a sutra box a piece of Masakado's helmet and the sleeve of a kimono once worn by late Princess Takiyasha [5]. Takiyasha was Masakado's wife and loyalist general Mitsunaka's younger sister. Sumitomo immerses a shakuj˘ in the blood of the two dead warriors. He is about to make the final preparations to bring Masakado back to life, however, three bandits appear to snatch the sutra box away. Then, a deer emerges to grab the box from the bandits and jumps into the valley.

Act I, scene 2: at the Tsuzumi-ga-Taki Waterfall

The scene opens at the Tsuzumi-ga-Taki Waterfall (literally the waterfall of the tsuzumi). Another loyalist warrior appears on stage to grab the deer. But instead of succumbing, the deer kills the warrior. Band˘ Tar˘, a leader of a band of mountain thieves emerges from under the deerskin. One of the bandits reemerges to try to walk away with the sutra box. Sumitomo's shakuj˘ is suddenly flying through the air and disappears behind Takiyasha's tombstone. Takiyasha was killed by her own brother in these mountains after jilting her loyalist fiancÚ Tawara no T˘ta Hidesato and running off with rebel Masakado and bearing him a son.

There is a fantastic rumbling of the earth. Then, a skeleton appears from behind the tombstone. When Tar˘ pokes the skeleton, it transforms into Princess Takiyasha. The prayers Sumitomo had been offering has brought the spirit of Masakado back in the form of his wife Takiyasha. Takiyasha, with a woman's body and a man's soul, now intimidates the frightened Tar˘ and disappears into the darkness with the sutra box and Sumitomo's shakuj˘. Meanwhile, Sumitomo returns and takes back the ornament from Masakado's helmet.

Act II, scene 1: at the Old Hermitage in Uji

Masakado's sister Princess Nanaaya is being sheltered from loyalist pursuers at the Tsuend˘, a rustic and old hermitage in Uji. She is protected by her wet nurse Mikuriya, now disguised as the ama Nyogetsu.

Mikuriya also lives with her own blind daughter, Princess Kiyo. She has cried herself blind over her love for an unknown man with whom she had a one-night love affair during a pilgrimage. All koshimoto are disguised as tea-pickers [6]. Nyogetsu generally serves tea to passersby, who on this day include Inugami Hy˘d˘, an official disguised as a farmer, and Jakubaku, a scheming mountain ascetic who is collecting alms for the construction of a belfry in the precincts of the Miidera Temple. Hy˘d˘ informs Jakubaku that rewards are being given for the capture of both Princess Nanaaya and Fujiwara no Tadabumi, a former court noble in the loyalist forces who has refused to capture Masakado because of his love for Masakado's sister Nanaaya.

Jakubaku had previously buried a treasured mirror that he stole near the temple and now takes the opportunity to retrieve it. He also suspects that Nanaaya is hiding at the Tsuend˘ and furtively steps around the back of the house to spy.

Along comes Minamoto no Yorimitsu, son of loyalist leader Mitsunaka. He is disguised as an itinerant priest named Anchin. He, too, feel in disgrace for two reasons: a love affair with Princess Nanaaya and the loss of a precious family heirloom, a sword named Murasame. He is now seeking the sword in order to be reinstated in his former lofty position. He asks Nyogetsu for a night's lodging, which is readily granted. Princess Nanaaya appears and immediately recognizes Yorimitsu through the priest's disguise. Yorimitsu, however, withdraws in alarm, saying he cannot have anything to do with her now, at least until he has retrieved the missing sword and regained his position. He is about to leave but Nyogetsu stops him, saying she will permit her daughter Kiyo to spend the night with Yorimitsu. She makes it clear that, taking advantage of the darkness, Nanaaya will replace Kiyo in bed. With that, the lovers go off, led to an inner room by Princess Kiyo.

Hy˘d˘ and Jakubaku return, saying they have proof that Nanaaya is being sheltered at the Tsuend˘. They demand her severed head which has to be presented to the authorities. At the 9th stroke on the evening bell, Hy˘d˘ will be back to get the head. Jakubaku will remain behind in hiding to keep watch. Having overheard the conversation, Princess Kiyo offers to be killed in Nanaaya's stead. She is ready to sacrifice herself as she thinks she will never meet again the unknown man who has loved her. In the presence of Nanaaya and Yorimitsu, Nyogetsu draws the sword to strike Kiyo. She is stopped by a roaring thunder and Kiyo faints. Yorimitsu runs over to discover that the sword Nyogetsu was about to use is Murasame! Now that the sword is back in his hands, Yorimitsu can be reinstated in his former position and his wedding with Princess Nanaaya will be possible.

The magical sword, meanwhile, has worked a miracle, and the blind Kiyo recovers her sight. She immediately recognizes Yorimitsu as being the man with whom she fell in love. She is no longer willing to die for Nanaaya. She is, instead, assailed by deadly jealousy over Nanaaya's relationship with Yorimitsu. Nyogetsu is appalled by her daughter's jealousy (shittogoto). She ties her with a rope attached to a large bell, planning to leave her bound until she recovers her senses.

Nyogetsu sends Nanaaya and Yorimitsu to another room. As dusk falls, the lovers' shadows can be seen on the paper windows. Kiyo sees them and is overcome by another wave of passionate jealousy when the lights go out. She hears the bell ring four times and remembers that Hy˘d˘ is supposed to come out of hiding to claim Nanaaya's head.

Princess Kiyo strikes the bell with her head, knocking herself unconscious, Jakubaku, who had been spying, realizes what she was trying to do and decides to carry on striking the remaining strokes himself. At the signal, pursuers close in on the temple. Jakubaku frees Princess Kiyo and urges her to go strike Nanaaya herself, handing her his sword. Hy˘d˘ comes to claim Nanaaya's head and is confronted by Nyogetsu, now attired in white robes along with the koshimoto - all ready to die fighting for their mistress with their naginata. They engage in a furious fight while Yorimitsu and Nanaaya make their escape.

Princess Kiyo makes a move to chase after them, but Nyogetsu strikes her and a desperate fight between mother and daughter ensues. Princess Kiyo's long sash comes undone, and the loose end is held tightly in her mother's hands. The sash unwinds as Princess Kiyo moves off, undulating and growing longer and longer and Nyogetsu realizes to her horror that it has become a snake with her daughter as its head. Hy˘d˘ leaps out to attack Nyogetsu, who stabs herself mortally, letting go of her hold on the sash. Princess Kiyo tries to move away but has to come back to the bell to free her sash.

Act II, scene 2: at the Hashihime Shrine

Yorimitsu comes with Nanaaya to the precincts of the Hashihime Shrine. As the princess is feeling ill, he leaves her at the shrine while he goes to fetch water for her. Fujiwara no Tadabumi approaches the shrine. Tadabumi had been banished by the imperial court for allowing Masakado to escape in battle. He holds a letter that led to his downfall. This is a letter from Princess Nanaaya, promising him her love if he spares Masakado's life.

Tadabumi approaches the shrine through the rain and prays for a chance to meet Nanaaya once again. A peal of thunder causes the princess to cry out in terror. Tadabumi rushes to the back of the shrine and finds Nanaaya. Yorimitsu returns just in time to rescue Nanaaya, however. As the two men are grappling with one another, Jakubaku enters and decides to switch loyalties. He is now on Yorimitsu's side. After all, the son of Mitsunaka is sure to become influential in the future, now that he has recovered the magic sword. Jakubaku restrains Tadabumi, allowing the lovers to make their escape.

Act II, scene 3: on the Bank of the Kizugawa River

Yorimitsu and Nanaaya come to the Kizugawa River bank where they board a ferry to take them across the river. As the boatman starts rowing away from shore, Jakubaku comes running up and asks to be let aboard the same boat. The boatman tosses the mooring rope to him and tells him to pull the boat back to shore so he can board. But at this point Tadabumi comes running up and grabs the mooring rope. Jakubaku tries to keep Tadabumi from boarding the boat and is abetted by the boatman who, having recognized Tadabumi as a wanted fugitive, refuses to let him on board.

Jakubaku orders the boatman to leave without him so the boat goes off carrying the lovers to safety. Tadabumi glares out after the departing boat and is assailed by jealousy. Jakubaku is startled by a strange shadow on the ground and notices that Tadabumi's shadow has taken the shape of a demon. He takes out the magic mirror in his possession and shows it to Tadabumi. Tadabumi sees his reflection in the mirror as a demon.

As Tadabumi glares after the boat, Jakubaku strikes him with his sword. Tadabumi's garment is cut to shreds and covered with blood, but he continues to stand glaring after the boat. Then he grabs the signboard that had been set up to announce that he is wanted. He bites into Jakubaku's throat and blows the blood onto the signboard. Jakubaku drops the mirror. The blood on the signboard turns into fire and starts to burn, while Tadabumi and Jakubaku both fall dead into the river.

Princess Takiyasha appears on stage, picks up the fallen mirror, and jumps into a nearby boat. From downstream comes a boat with the thief Band˘ Tar˘ and from upstream comes Tawara no T˘ta Hidesato. In the darkness, the three boats bump into one another, their passengers all groping around for the magic mirror. Tar˘ ultimately captures it and races downstream with it.

Act III, scene 1: at the Mountain Hideout in Shim˘sa

Princess Takiyasha, who has been brought back to life, is now spending her days as the mistress of the mountain thief Band˘ Tar˘ in the province of Shim˘sa. Takiyasha had followed Tar˘ here in pursuit of the prized mirror that once belonged to her husband Masakado. Tar˘'s mountain hideout is in fact Masakado's last palace. A woman named Yaegaki is walking with a child in these dangerous mountains. The child is Yoshikado, the son of Masakado and Takiyasha. Yaegaki is now surrounded by Tar˘'s henchmen. They abduct the woman, take the boy away from her and left him in the mountains.

Tar˘'s father Yotsuzuka Daisaku, who is in reality Iga no Jutar˘, a former retainer of Sumitomo's father, also lives in this mountain hideout. Daisaku is upset that his son Tar˘ should now be living with Princess Takiyasha, the sister of his enemy Tada no Mitsunaka.

The pilgrim H˘kai, who in reality is Sumitomo himself, and Tawara T˘ta Hidesato also appear at the hideout. Hidesato was once engaged to Princess Takiyasha but was jilted in favor of Masakado. Hidesato, too, has pursued Tar˘ here in search of the magic mirror.

As Takiyasha expresses her surprise at seeing Hidesato, the cries of an infant are heard. It is Yoshikado, who has been brought back by wolves after being thrown into a valley at the beginning of the scene. For an instant Takiyasha is overcome with concern for the boy, but she soon shakes this off and plots to murder Masakado's arch enemy Hidesato. Hidesato is just barely able to escape assassination and picks up the shakuj˘, which was dropped by Takiyasha. Then, he quickly runs away.

Tar˘, meanwhile, declares to his father Daisaku and Sumitomo that he is prepared to throw away his own life to murder their arch enemy Mitsunaka. The two are impressed and agree to drink to Tar˘'s resolve. As the three take turns drinking sake, Daisaku and Sumitomo suddenly throw up blood. Tar˘ has placed poison in the sake, hoping that taking the life of his own father and Sumitomo would put him in the good graces of the Minamoto rulers. With red and white flags owned by Daisaku and Sumitomo now in his possession, Tar˘ lets out a loud laugh, knowing that he has now become virtually invincible.

Act III, scene 2: at the Kannond˘ Temple

The scene opens at the Kannond˘ Temple, a rustic mountain temple dedicated to Kannon. Cherry blossoms are in full bloom on a tree in the rounds of the temple. It is still winter and this tree should be in full blossom. Princess Takiyasha and Hidesato both approach the tree, respectively holding a spade and plow. The unseasoned cherry blossoms are due to the fact that this is the spot where Tar˘ has buried the magic mirror. While Hidesato is busy digging, the shakuj˘ falls from his kimono. Takiyasha quickly reaches over to pick it up, but as she does so, Hidesato unearths the mirror.

Tar˘, holding the severed head of Sumitomo, appears and takes the shakuj˘ from Takiyasha's grasp. When blood from Sumitomo's head touches the shakuj˘, Takiyasha flinches. When Hidesato takes out the mirror and holds it up against Takiyasha, moreover, the ghost of Masakado really emerges from Takiyasha's body. The ghost turns into a skeleton and disappears.

Tar˘ has now expurgated both Masakado's grudge and Sumitomo's remaining ambitions. He now hopes to report this to Tada no Mitsunaka in order to win his favors. Just as he is about to set off, he is confronted by Mitsunaka's retainer Ikuta Shichir˘, who had been disguising himself as one of Tar˘'s henchmen calling himself Ishiguro. Shichir˘ makes the startling revelation that Tar˘ is, in fact, the real Sumitomo. Tar˘ was born to Sumitomo's parents as the legitimate heir but had been switched in the cradle with a baby named Kong˘maru, who was the son of Iga no Jutar˘, alias Yotsuzuka Daisaku.

The real Sumitomo now confronts Hidesato's forces but is prevented from attacking as Yaegaki enters carrying Yoshikado. Sumitomo does not want to kill the son of his deceased ally. Promising Hidesato that he will meet again on the battlefield, he disappears.

Act IV, scene 1: Futa Omote D˘j˘ji [7]

The drama ends with a spectacular parody of the dance-drama "Musume D˘j˘ji". Mitsunaka's son Yorimitsu arrives at the Miidera Temple where priest Hakuun and Kokuun [8] congratulate him on having been reinstated in his former position. They add that they have made secret preparations for a nuptial ceremony for Yorimitsu and Princess Nanaaya. Today is an important day: a bell reputed to have been brought from the Undersea Kingdom is to be installed in the temple. They have taken advantage of the situation to hide Nanaaya inside the bell. When the two priests pull the rope to raise the bell, Nanaaya emerges from inside, much to Yorimitsu's surprise. The lovers go off together, while the two priests retire to the side and start to take a nap. Suddenly a shiraby˘shi appears from inside the bell. The two priests wake up and question her. Learning that she is a shiraby˘shi, they ask her to perform a dance for them. She complies. But as the dance progresses, the acolytes become aware that the performer is not a woman but a man. The premises had been put off limits to men on this particular day in order to ensure Yorimitsu's complete privacy with Nanaaya, so the acolytes demand that the dancer identify himself. The dancer reveals that he is in reality a ky˘genshi named Masuroku. The two priest suspect he may be a spy, but Yorimitsu appears with Nanaaya and they join in the questioning. They demand that Masuroku prove he is a ky˘genshi by performing a dance for them. Masuroku starts to dance, using three different masks to portray three characters. When the performance is over the actor drops his masks. To Yorimitsu, Masuroku appears as the dead Princess Kiyo. To Nanaaya, he appears as the ghost of Tadabumi. Masuroku is in reality the spirit of both the jealous Princess Kiyo and the jealous Tadabumi. These two ghosts will take revenge against against the rival who has deprived them of their loved one.

Masuroku vows to kill both Yorimitsu and Nanaaya. The two priests Hakuun and Kokuun come to their rescue and drop the bell, hiding the lovers inside. The frustrated Masuroku clambers to the top the fallen bell. It turns pitch dark, frightening the two priests who try to remember a charm by which they might bring the light back on again. They chant an incantation. They now see Masuroku striking a menacing pose, and they run away in fright. Pursuers close in on Masuroku and a fight ensues. Masuroku uses his demonic power to raise the bell. Yorimitsu emerges with his magical Murasame sword. The ghost of Tadabumi in Masuroku tries to grab Princess Nanaaya, but Yorimitsu strikes him with Murasame. The bombastic warrior Tawara no T˘ta Hidesato comes swaggering to the site (oshimodoshi). He will fight against Masuroku. The demon now clambers up the bell and poses on top of it, glaring at his enemies below while fighters (uroko yoten) arrange themselves in such a way as to appear as the body of a huge serpent with Masuroku as its head.

Notes

[1] the title "The Gold Shrine Offerings of Sarushima" comes from Samuel Leiter's "Historical Dictionary of Japanese Traditional Theatre".

[2] the 19th day of the 11th lunar month of the 12th year of the Bunsei era was the 14th of December 1829 in the western calendar.

[3] the 27th day of the 11th lunar month of the 12th year of the Bunsei era was the 22nd of December 1829 in the western calendar.

[4] he was also called Iyo no Sumitomo as he was from the province of Iyo.

[5] Takiyasha was in real history the daughter of Taira no Masakado, not his wife!

[6] Uji is famous for its high-quality green tea.

[7] the final dance-drama is set at the Miidera Temple, not the D˘j˘ji Temple but this dance being a parody of "Musume D˘j˘ji", it has retained the name of the latter temple in its title! "Futa Omote D˘j˘ji" can be translated as "Double-Faced D˘joji".

[8] the two priests, who are named Hakuunb˘ (the white cloud bonze) and Kokuunb˘ (the black cloud bonze), are a parody of the two priests in "Narukami".

The actors Nakamura Shikan II and Segawa Kikunoj˘ V playing the roles of Tawara no T˘ta Hidesato and Takiyasha (in reality Taira no Masakado) in the drama "Kin no Zai Sarushima Dairi", which was staged in the 11th lunar month of 1829 at the Nakamuraza (print made by Utagawa Kunisada I)

 
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